M400 series as survivin/PLK1 as specific DiLA2 (Di-Alkylated Amino Acid)/siRNA against bladder cancer. This program was originally licensed to Debiopharm. A range of RNAi triggers against the cancer-related genes polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and survivin were able to knockdown efficacies with IC50 values in the 10 to 30 pM range in cell based assays. This triggered widespread apoptosis and, in the case of PLK1, a strong reduction in cell viability. The selected siRNAs were formulated into positively charged multilamellar liposomes of around 100nm. Due to the negatively charged proteoglycan-rich urothelium, a formulation with a lipid containing a guanidinium group was deemed particularly promising in being able to penetrate the 6-7 cell-layered urothelium. Accordingly, these formulations, when instilled into the bladder, were able to very efficiently suppress the growth of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancers in mouse models of the disease. Highly efficient in vivo knockdowns were found, 90-95% with 1mg/kg dose level.